Nowadays more and more agreements are made in English, for English is the nearest thing we have to a universal business language. Joint ventures, bank loans, and trademark licenses frequently are spelled out in this language even though it is not native to at least one of the contracting parties. As a beginning i am going to look at the subject of writing of business letters generally. In the main there are three stages transactions involving business contracts: first, negotiation of terms, second, drafting documents reflecting these terms, and third, litigation to enforce or to avoid executing of these terms. To my mind, a fourth might be added, the administration of contracts. I am going to look through the first two since the third and the fourth are related only to the field of law. A typical first stage of contract is two or more people having drink and talking about future dealing.
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the arrangement of visit, invitation, publication, the exchange of scientific literature, information, etc. Letters of this kind have a tone of friendliness, naturalism. Modern English letters should not be exaggerated, overburdened, outmoded with time-worn expressions. The key note is simplicity. Modern letters tend towards using the language of conversational style. Writing is not only a means of communication and contract, but also a record of affairs, information, events, etc. So it is necessary to feel the spirit and trend of the style in order to write a perfect letter. Business-letter or contract are law is a complex and vastly documented subject, only a lawyer can deal with it on a serious level. A number of basic principles, however, can be outlined sufficiently to mark of encounters that require the use of specialised English. Doing business means working out agreements with other people, sometimes through elaborate contracts and sometimes through nothing but little standard forms, through exchanges of letters and conversations at lunch.
What makes the resume letter so attractive and pleasing is not always the massage of the letter, it is often the manner and style in which the massage is written. "I wish to express to you my sincere appreciation for your note of congratulation. " or "I am sincerely happy that you were elected President of biological Society. " As you see such formulations show the attitude of the writer, his respect and sincerity. The language of business, professional and semi-official letters is formal, courteous, tactful, concise, expressive, and to the point. A neatly arranged letter will certainly make a better impression on the reader, thus good letters make good business partners. In the case of "scientific correspondence" the majority of letters bear mostly a semi-official character and are concerned with different situations associated with scientific activities concentrated around the organisation of scientific meetings (congresses, symposia, workshops, etc.
Therefore certain skills must be acquired by practice, and details of writing must be carefully and thoroughly learnt. A cheque, a contract or any other business paper sent by mail should always be accompanied by a letter. The letter resume says what is being sent so that the recipient should know exactly what you intended to send. It is a typical business letter which some people call "routine". The letter may be short or long, it may contain some very important and much less important information every letter requires careful planning and thoughtful writing. In recent years English has become a universal business language. As such, it is potentially an instrument of order and clarity. But words and phrases have unexpected ways of creating binding commitments. Letter-writing, certainly, is not the same as casual conversation, it bears only the same power of thoughts, reflections, and observations as in conversational talk, but the form may be quite different.
18, example2 20, example. Example 5 25, example. Bibliography 30, annotation, the subject matter of the course paper is the role of lexics and semantics in the case of business letter correspondence. The question of the history of official communication, the main stages of business transactions, the role of persons feeling for the proper use of phrases as well as his knowledge of grammar are highlighted. Moreover, those phrases which are more often used in business letters are examined from the point of view of their appropriateness in different situations. The practical part contains several examples of business letters; the occasions on which they were written and some of their characteristics are observed. Introduction, letter writing - is an essential part of communication, an intimate part of experience. Each letter-writer has a characteristic way of writing, his style of writing, his way of expressing thoughts, facts, etc. But it must be emphasised that the routine of the official or semi-official business letters requires certain accepted idioms, phrases, patterns, and grammar which are found in general use today.
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Keep an eye out for the tax Free logo at souvenir stores. English Word/Phrase norwegian Word/Phrase how much does this cost? Hvor mye koster dette? I'll buy it Jeg national kjøper det I would like to buy. Jeg vil gjerne ha.
Do you accept credit cards? One en Two to Three tre four fire five fem Six seks seven sju eight åtte nine ni ten ti tourist Essentials in Norway some get a chance to explore the pristine forests and fjords of Norway, but others never get past the capital city. Know the words for facilities around Norway. English Word/PhraseNorwegian Word/Phrase norwegian tourist Information Turistinformasjon Museum Museum Bank bank police Station Politistasjon Hospital sykehus Store, shop Butikk restaurant Restaurant Church Kirke restrooms toalett days of the week it can be helpful to know your days of the week especially if you are handling. English Word/PhraseNorwegian Word/Phrase monday mandag tuesday tirsdag Wednesday onsdag Thursday torsdag Friday fredag Saturday lørdag Sunday søndag Today i dag Yesterday i går Tomorrow I morgen day dag week uke month Måned year. Annotation 2, introduction 3, business letters throught lexics 7, a sampling of contract phrases. Foreign esoteric words 16, some words against passive 16, examining english business letters.
Norwegian Word/Phrase, yes, ja, no, nei, thank you. Takk, thank you very much, tusen takk, you're welcome. Vær så god, please, vær så snill, excuse. Unnskyld meg, hello hallo goodbye ha det I do not understand Jeg forstår ikke how do you say this in Norwegian hvordan sier man dette på norsk? Words for Getting Around Norway norway is a land of immense natural beauty that has 50 airports, eight of them are international.
Once in the country, the public transportation system is a reliable way of seeing the country. You can also rent a car, but watch for moose along the road, especially in the mountains. English Word/PhraseNorwegian Word/Phrase Where is? How much is the fare? Hvor mye koster billetten? One ticket., please En billett til., takk train Tog Bus Buss Norwegian Subway, underground T-bane airport Flyplass Train station Jernbanestasjon Bus station Busstasjon Are there any vacancies for tonight? Er det noe ledig for i natt? No vacancies Alt opptatt Spending Money in Norway handmade wool sweaters, troll dolls, painted wooden figurines, crystal, glassware, and leather and fur jackets are among Norway's most popular souvenirs. Prices can be high, but keep in mind that you may be entitled to a refund of the 25 percent Value added Tax (VAT) when you leave the country.
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Scandinavian language is useful, while knowledge of German or Dutch can english also be helpful in understanding written Norwegian. Compared to English, the vowels are different, however, most consonants are pronounced similar to English. Below are a few exceptions. LetterPronunciation in English, a "a" sound in father, e "e" sound in bed. I "ea" sound in beat, u "oo" sound in food Æ "a" sound in mad Ø "u" sound in hurt Å universities "a" sound in ball, j "y" sound in yes. R rolled slightly more than English "r". Kj, ki and ky soft "k" sound without blocking the throat, air makes a sound as squeezes out. Sj, sky, skj and ski "sh" sound as in shop, common Words and Greetings, tolerance and kindness to each other are important values in the land of Norway where "Peace and Progress" is the motto of the country. Greetings can go a long way in the home of the nobel Prize.
Most every norwegian can speak fluent English and tourism information is usually printed in English, too. But, if you want to flatter some norwegians with a modest attempt at a few words, check out the following common words you might want to use or need on your trip. Before you begin, norwegian is a germanic language and is closely related to danish and Swedish. Written Norwegian is virtually identical to danish. Swedes, norwegians and the danish understand each other easily. Norwegian is also related to Icelandic, resume german, dutch, and English. Pronunciation guide, when trying to pronounce words in Norwegian, some knowledge.
german (Deutsch). Speaking German for beginners / intermediate students. Talking about Germany in German language course. SmartPhrase online phrasebook german translations. If you are an English speaker and you are heading to norway for travel and have never been there, you might be relieved to know that English is widely spoken in Norway.
Here are some words and phrases to use. Expressions for letter arguing, evaluating and reaching conclusions. Example, try task 2 to practise this. If you are writing a, research Report, you might also find these examples useful. On this page: How do you say in German? Greetings: hello, good evening, good bye. Question words: where, when, why, who, what, how?
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In, research Report s and other formal pieces of academic writing, verbs are often nominalised (converted into nouns). This allows more information to be packed into the same space. Nominalisation is a useful way vietnamese of reducing the number of words in your assignment, without reducing the information content. Here are some examples of nominalised verbs at the beginning of sentences. Try task 1 to practise this. After reporting your work. Research Report, you will usually need to draw some conclusions.