In each case the object of the writing was to communicate to yourself, your supervisors, or to others, something about your work. In writing your dissertation you will draw on some of this earlier writing to produce a longer and more comprehensive account. Check out what is required. Before embarking on any substantial writing for your dissertation you will need to check the exact requirements regarding: the word limit: maximum and minimum; and whether or not this includes words within tables, the abstract, the reference list, and the appendices; which chapters are expected. The structure, there are some conventions that guide the structuring of dissertations in different disciplines. You should check departmental and course regulations. Below are two structures that are commonly used. Title page, abstract, acknowledgements, contents page(s).
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For a printer-friendly pdf version of this guide, click here, this Study guide addresses the task of writing a dissertation. It aims to help you to feel confident in the construction of this extended piece of writing, and to support you in its successful completion. You may also find the following Study guides helpful: Introduction, sometimes writing is seen as an activity that happens after everything else: The research is going well, so the writing should be straightforward - i can leave it until later. I know Im not good at writing so i keep papers putting it off. I know Im good at writing so i can leave it to later. I want to get everything sorted out in my mind before i start writing or Ill just end up wasting my time re-writing. These four very different perspectives lead to the same potential problems: regarding re-drafting as a failure or a waste of time; ignoring the further learning and clarification of argument that usually occurs during the writing and re-writing process; and leaving too little time for effective. The process of having to describe your study in detail, in a logical sequence of written words, will inevitably highlight where more thought is needed, and it may lead to new insight into connections, implications, rationale, relevance, and may lead to new ideas for further. Barras (1993:136) suggests that you think of your report as part of your investigation, not as a duty to be undertaken when your work is otherwise complete, and this Study guide suggests that: writing is an integral part of the research process. Getting on with the writing, the good news is that you have already started writing if you have written any of the following in relation to this study: a research proposal; a literature review; a report of any pilot studies that you undertook; an abstract.
A full understanding of the limitations of your research is part of a good discussion section. Top Tip At this stage, you may want to revisit your literature review, unless you submitted it as a separate submission earlier, and revise it to draw out those studies which have proven more relevant. Conclude by summarising the implications of your findings in brief, and explain why they are important for researchers and in practice, and provide retrolisthesis some suggestions for further work. You may also wish to make some recommendations for practice. As before, this may be a separate section, or included in your discussion. Conclusion The results and discussion, including conclusion and recommendations, are probably the most substantial sections of your dissertation. Once completed, you can begin to relax slightly: you are on to the last stages of writing!
Top Tip This is likely to be one of the longest sections of your dissertation, and its a good idea to break it down into chunks with sub-headings to help your reader to navigate through the detail. Fleshing Out the detail Once you have your outline in front of you, you can start to map out how your results fit into the outline. This will help you to see whether your results are over-focused in one area, which is why writing up your research as you go along can be a helpful process. For each theme or area, you should discuss how the results help to answer your research question, and whether the results are consistent english with your expectations and the literature. The Importance of Understanding Differences If your results are controversial and/or unexpected, you should set them fully in context and explain why you think that you obtained them. Your explanations may include issues such as a non-representative sample for convenience purposes, a response rate skewed towards those with a particular experience, or your own involvement as a participant for sociological research. You do not need to be apologetic about these, because you made a choice about them, which you should have justified in the methodology section. However, you do need to evaluate your own results against others findings, especially if they are different.
The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject. You also need to demonstrate that you understand the limitations of your research and the implications of your findings for policy and practice. This section should be written in the present tense. The discussion section needs to follow from your results and relate back to your literature review. Make sure that everything you discuss is covered in the results section. Some universities require a separate section on recommendations for policy and practice and/or for future research, while others allow you to include this in your discussion, so check the guidelines carefully. Starting the task, most people are likely to write this section best by preparing an outline, setting out the broad thrust of the argument, and how your results support. You may find techniques like mind mapping are helpful in making a first outline; check out our page: Creative thinking for some ideas about how to think through your ideas. You should start by referring back to your research questions, discuss your results, then set them into the context of the literature, and then into broader theory.
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Top Tip, summarise your results in the essay text, drawing on the figures and tables to illustrate your points. The text and figures should be complementary, not repeat the same information. You should refer to every table or figure in the text. Any that you dont feel the need to refer to can safely be moved to an appendix, or even removed. Make sure that you including information about the size and direction of any changes, including percentage change if appropriate. Statistical tests should include details of p values or confidence intervals and limits.
While you dont need to include all your primary evidence in this section, you should as a matter of good practice make it available in an appendix, to which you should refer at the relevant point. For example: Details of all the interview participants can be found in Appendix a, with transcripts of each interview in Appendix. You will, almost inevitably, find that you need to include some slight discussion of your results during this section. This discussion should evaluate the quality of the results and their reliability, but not stray too far into discussion of how far your results support your hypothesis and/or answer words your research questions, as that is for the discussion section. See our pages: Analysing qualitative data and, simple Statistical Analysis for more information on analysing your results. Discussion Section, this section has four purposes, it should: Interpret and explain your results. Answer your research question, justify your approach, critically evaluate your study.
You should write your results section in the past tense: you are describing what you have done in the past. Every result included must have a method set out in the methods section. Check back to make sure that you have included all the relevant methods. Conversely, every method should also have some results given so, if you choose to exclude certain experiments from the results, make sure that you remove mention of the method as well. If you are unsure whether to include certain results, go back to your research questions and decide whether the results are relevant to them. It doesnt matter whether they are supportive or not, its about relevance.
If they are relevant, you should include them. Having decided what to include, next decide what order to use. You could choose chronological, which should follow the methods, or in order from most to least important in the answering of your research questions, or by research question and/or hypothesis. You also need to consider how best to present your results: tables, figures, graphs, or text. Try to use a variety of different methods of presentation, and consider your reader: 20 pages of dense tables are hard to understand, as are five pages of graphs, but a single table and well-chosen graph that illustrate your overall findings will make things much. Make sure that each table and figure has a number and a title. Number tables and figures in separate lists, but consecutively by the order in which you mention them in the text. If you have more than about two or three, its often helpful to provide lists of tables and figures alongside the table of contents at the start of your dissertation.
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Writing the results and discussion as separate sections allows you to focus first on what results you obtained and set out clearly what happened in your experiments and/or investigations without worrying about their implications. This can focus your mind on what the results actually show and help you to sort them in your head. However, many people find it easier to combine the results with their implications as the two are closely connected. Check your universitys requirements carefully before combining the results and discussions sections as some specify that they must be kept separate. Results Section, the results section should set out your key experimental results, including any statistical analysis and whether or not the results of these are significant. You should cover any literature supporting your interpretation of significance. It does not have to include everything you did, particularly for a doctorate dissertation. However, for an undergraduate or master's thesis, you will probably online find that you need to include most of your work.
Cite weblastEssays firstuk urlp? Vref1 titleDissertation Analysis how to analyse your dissertation m datenovember 2013 accessdate locationNottingham,. All Answers business ltd, 'dissertation Analysis how to analyse your dissertation' (m, july 2018) p? Vref1 accessed Reference copied to Clipboard. When writing a dissertation or thesis, the results and discussion sections can be both the most interesting as well as the most challenging sections to write. You may choose to write these sections separately, or combine them into a single chapter, depending on your universitys guidelines and your own preferences. There are advantages to both approaches.
are using qualitative or quantitative analysis (see the methodology topic) the best grades are awarded for analysis that links academic opinions to each other as well as to your thesis. Dissertation Analysis how to analyse your dissertation. Reference copied to Clipboard. "Dissertation Analysis how to analyse your dissertation.". "Dissertation Analysis how to analyse your dissertation." All Answers Ltd. Vref1 Accessed Reference copied to Clipboard. Dissertation Analysis how to analyse your dissertation Internet. Accessed ; available from: p?
When you are writing you need to think 'is the relevance of this sentence or fact clear to the reader?' - if it is not then you are not adding sufficient analysis. To use two examples: thesis It is not enough, for example, in an economics dissertation to just state that 'p -1 or to note in a medical dissertation that 'the half-life of citalopram is 24-48 hours'. Both examples may well be true but they mean little by themselves. The dissertation must explain why these facts or opinions are relevant and how they add understanding to that which you are writing. Such examples are likely to elicit a response from the marker of 'so what' and will accordingly receive a low grade for analysis. In contrast, the dissertation sentence that states the following will receive a higher grade because the importance of the fact has been explained and directly linked to wider questions being explored within the dissertation. However, it is possible for such a sentence to get an even higher grade if the analysis offered is linked directly to academic opinion.
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Your dissertation analysis section is the single most important part of your dissertation. It will decide whether you get a first, second, or Third class degree. Without analysis your work is likely to fail. Some universities expect there to be report separate chapters that deal specifically with the presentation of data and its analysis. However, whether or not this is the case where you are studying be under no illusions - analysis is the most important part of your work. Moreover, it is expected to be ever present throughout the entirety of your work and not just in 'analysis chapters'. Indeed, as shown above, the literature review that receives the best mark is the one that analyses how the existing literature is directly relevant to the dissertation being written. Another word for analysis is 'explanation'. Throughout your work you need to explain why that which you have written, noted, recorded or commented upon is important.